Interesting facts about Samurai
While "samurai" is a strictly masculine term, the Japanese bushi class (the social class samurai came from) did feature women who received similar training in martial arts and strategy. These women were called "Onna-Bugeisha" and they were known to participate in combat along with their male counterparts. Their weapon of choice was usually the naginata, a spear with a curved, sword-like blade that was versatile, yet relatively light.
Since historical texts offer relatively few accounts of these female warriors (the traditional role of a Japanese noblewoman was more of a homemaker), we used to assume they were just a tiny minority. However, recent research indicates that Japanese women participated in battles quite a lot more often than history books admit. When remains from the site of the Battle of Senbon Matsubaru in 1580 were DNA-tested, 35 out of 105 bodies were female. Research on other sites has yielded similar results.
As soldiers, samurai employed a number of different weapons. They originally carried a sword called a "chokuto," which was essentially a slimmer, smaller version of the straight swords later used by medieval knights.
As sword-making techniques progressed, the samurai switched to curved swords, which eventually evolved into the katana. The katana is perhaps the most famous sword type in the world and certainly the most iconic of all samurai weapons. Bushido (the samurai code) dictated that a samurai's soul was in his katana, which made it the most important weapon he carried. Katanas were usually carried with a smaller blade in a pair called "daisho," which was a status symbol used exclusively by the samurai class.
While some samurai did indeed fight with nothing but their katana, most took a more practical approach. Swords were far from the only weapon they had at their disposal. They commonly used the yumi, a longbow they practiced religiously with. Spears became important as personal bravery on the battlefield was eventually replaced by meticulous planning and tactics. When gunpowder was introduced in the 16th century, the samurai abandoned their bows in favor of firearms and cannons. Their long-distance weapon of choice was the tanegashima, a flintlock rifle that became popular among Edo-era samurai and their footmen. Cannons and other gunpowder weapons were also commonly employed.
The samurai armor, unlike the armor worn by European knights, was always designed for mobility. A good suit of armor had to be sturdy, yet flexible enough to allow its wearer free movement in the battlefield. The armor was made of lacquered plates of either leather or metal, carefully bound together by laces of leather or silk. The arms were protected by large, rectangular shoulder shields and light, armored sleeves. The right hand was often left without a sleeve to allow maximum movement.
The strangest and most convoluted part of the armor, the kabuto helmet, also served its purpose. Its bowl was made of riveted metal plates, while the face and brow were protected by a piece of armor that tied around behind the head and under the helmet. The most famous feature of the helmet was its Darth Vader-like neck guard (Darth Vader's design was actually influenced by samurai helmets). It defended the wearer from arrows and swords coming from all angles. Many helmets also featured ornaments and attachable pieces, including a mustachioed, demonic mengu mask that both protected the face and frightened the enemy. A leather cap worn underneath the helmet provided much-needed padding.
Although the samurai armor changed over time, its overall look always remained fairly consistent to the untrained eye. It was so well-made and effective that the US Army actually based the early flack jackets on samurai armor.
Below is a reference for terminology related to the Japanese katana.
The traditional Japanese daito, or long sword, has been crafted in a variety of lengths and blade shapes throughout history. Pictured below is a katana blade representing the Shinogi Zukuri, one of the more common shapes for Japanese nihonto.
The tsuka, or handle of the Japanese katana involves intricately detailed components that vary widely in terms of workmanship, materials and aesthetics. A high quality Japanese sword will typically feature a silk ito tightly braided around a ray skin same' with a fuchi and fuchi-kashira made of iron, silver or other strong, quality metal. The tsuba and menuki offer particular opportunites for personalization and craftsmanship. Although traditionally, every aspect of the swords' creation is carefully and skillfully executed and offers a glimpse of the personality of the sword maker.The Saya
The saya, or scabbard of the katana, can vary greatly in materials and quality as well. Often only considered as an afterthought when purchasing a sword, saya finish and craftsmanship greatly affect the display quality of a katana or wakizashi. Hand lacquered wood, such as Honoki, provides a beautiful, secure housing with fittings of buffalo horn making a fine detail. The blade should fit the saya tightly, without easily falling out or being too tight to withdraw quickly.
A quality sword bag for storage or transport will help keep the finish scratch free.